Qatar is positioned in the Middle East, a well-known geographical region of south west Asia. The country extends into the Persian Gulf from Saudi Arabian landmass, bordered by Saudi Arabia. It is about 180kms long and 85 kms wide, and covers an area of 11.437 kms. The landscape is generally flat with prominent hills. Sand dunes and rocky hills are found in southern parts of the country. Saline swampy mud flats are quite common along the coastal areas.
Qatar is classified as hot tropical desert, which is very hot between June and August, pleasant during November and Februaru. Qatar is affected by wind blown dust and occasional sandstorms. The country has no lakes or rivers and apart from the rainfall received, a major source of fresh water is found water.
Qatar has a dry climate, mainly holds an arid soil, with shallow depth and low retention which is low of soluble substances. Apart from the soil of cultivated areas, four soil associations such have been recognized in addition to soil of cultivated areas, based on the topographic and geographic settings, the Sabkha deposits (saline soil), Rowda (depression) soil, Lithosol (rocky soil) and Sandy soil have been recognized. The geographical location of Qatar, which is a part of the large land mass of Arabian Peninsula, plays an essential role that makes up its flora and vegetation.